Tag Archives: winter

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Broth: not just for the tummy troubles

It is the dead of winter. There’s no more figgy pudding, the stored vegetable stores are starting to run low, and the light is still in short supply. I got fed up with my snow boots the last week and braved the snow in clogs. Winter be damned! Somehow, this was my rebellion against the endless layers and tense muscles that old man winter demands.

All I got was wet feet.

It’s times like this that require a little broth. There are many benefits to a cup of bone broth, including some protein,  gelatin, and glycine (the last two are good for your gut!). It’s a great thing to drink daily. Even if you don’t care a fig about the nutritional benefits, bone broth is a building block for so many recipes, that having it on hand is so handy. Buying it is expensive, and it is easy and quick to make at home. Plus, it saves you some bones! It will certainly make your day a little warmer, and that’s really saying something.

The difference between stock, broth and bone broth:

Broth — Broth cooks 45 minutes to two hours and usually uses meat, and perhaps some bones. The flavor is light, and it is generally not drunk on its own but instead used as a building block.

Stock — Stock and bone broth are similar in their ingredient lists, but differ greatly in the time they are cooked. They both always include bones, according to the definition, however a stock is typically cooked three to four hours and bone broth typically 12 – 24 hours. A note on vegetable stock: essentially, vegetable stock and vegetable broth are the same. The difference is how you use them in the end. (Will it be an ingredient of a larger dish? Stock. Will it be drunk on its own? Broth. )

Bone broth — Bone broth is always cooked with bones, and cooked for a long time (12 – 24+ hours). Some add vegetables, some do not.

Where to get bones:

Direct from the farmer (Lifeline Farm, Jamie’s Naturally Raised Grass Finished Beef, Oxbow Cattle Company, Manix Family Grass Finished Beef. . . Check out AERO’s Abundant Montana directory) — try the winter and summer farmers’ markets in Missoula, too. You can get a large amount and freeze them. You’ll need around 2 lbs of bones per 64 oz batch.

At a local natural food store –if you don’t see them on display, ask the meat department if they have any soup bones you could purchase. They’re usually very cost-effective.

You can keep a bone bag in the freezer, and put your chicken carcasses, ham hocks and other pork bones, and beef bones in there until you are ready to make some stock. A mixture of bones gives a wider flavor profile.

Make it without wasting all those veggies!

You can make bone broth without any vegetables (well, you always use the garlic). However, if you want the flavor vegetables offer, just start collecting your vegetable scraps. I’ve recently started keeping a bag in my freezer for my vegetable scraps. Any time I prepare a meal, I put the discarded ends and peelings, etc. in the bag for my next broth making venture.

Vegetables to keep — the basic aromatics are what I typically use (carrots, onions, celery) — they give a good base to work from. However, once I started staving scraps, root vegetables, stalks, leaves, tops, ends, peelings. Kale and chard stems, bell pepper cores, green beans/string beans, mushroom stems, herb stems. I put the garlic and onion skins in, though I’ve read that onions skins, along with beets, will turn your broth dark brown, so it’s more of a cosmetic thing. If you have some veggies that are about to turn (but haven’t yet) or are a bit dehydrated, this is a great use for them!

Vegetables to send packing — cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, (all from the brassica family, which has a certain odor you don’t want in your stock/broth), turnips and rutabagas (those are two roots to avoid). And of course, rotten spots and moldy veggies are also not a good idea.

How to make it

I prefer to make bone broth in my slow cooker. It is an Instant Pot so it can hold up to 64 oz, which is key for this recipe. If you are in the market, I can’t say enough about this one, it’s made of safe, stainless steel, it’s big, and can pressure cook, make yogurt, and rice. Anyway.

This makes 4 full quart sized mason jars.

Mason Jars

I got the bones (I used beef bones this time) and vegetables scraps out of the freezer, and dumped them in.

my ingredients

On top, I poured the apple cider vinegar and salt. I added a whole head of garlic, just smashing each clove between my knife and the cutting board before adding. I poured water to the max fill line in the slow cooker.

bone broth ready to boil

 

After that, all I had to do was stick the lid on, and put it on high until it came to a boil. Then, I turned it to low, and cooked it for 12 hours.

Here’s the beautiful elixir:

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Other notes:

set your slow cooker for 12 hours

Cooking time: Some say the vegetables will become bitter if you cook them longer than 12 hours. The longer you cook the broth, however, the better for you it gets. I often cook it for 24 hours without a problem, but if you are concerned about bitter broth, just scoop out the vegetables at the 12 hour mark and keep on cooking. Or skip the vegetables and just use water, vinegar, bones, salt and garlic (that doesn’t get bitter). You can also check doneness by taste and smell. This batch tasted perfect at 12 hours, so I didn’t have to worry. You know you’ve gotten all the nutrients out of the bones when they are starting to crumble at the edges.

Stovetop or oven: You can also do this on the stove top or in the oven. You want to bring it to a boil, then reduce the heat so that it is simmering in such a way that a tiny bubble trickles up every few seconds. Same cooking time (12 – 24 hours). For the oven, bring to a boil on the stove, then place in a 200 degree oven.

Storage: You can keep it in the fridge for 4-5 days, then it’s time to freeze. I like to either freeze in an ice cube tray or small baggies. Remember to label the baggies so you know how many cups are enclosed, and when you made it.

Roasting the bones for flavor: This is a great idea if you have time and want to bring out a richness in the bone broth, but easily skipped for simplicity. Coat the bones in a high heat oil (I usually use a solid fat like lard, bacon grease, or duck fat) and distribute them in a roasting pan. Roast at 400 degrees for around an hour.

To drink on its own: add your favorite herbs (fresh or dried), or just a little garlic and salt.

Recipe

This recipe is designed to make 64 oz of broth. Make sure your soup pot or slow cooker has the capacity. 

Ingredients:
  • Whole head of garlic, broken apart and each clove smashed (leave skin on)
  • 1.5 – 2 lbs stock bones (can use chicken, beef, or pork bones)
  • Vegetable scraps (optional)
  • Bay leaf (optional)
  • 1/3 cup apple cider vinegar
  • 2 teaspoons salt
  • Water
How to:

Combine the bones, vegetable scraps, and bay leaf. Pour the salt and apple cider vinegar over the top. Add water until you reach the max fill line in your slow cooker or soup pot.

Bring the water to a boil, then cook it for 12 – 24 hours. The longer the better. Remove or skip the vegetable scraps if you cook it longer than 12 hours. Let cool and refrigerate or freeze.

If this bone broth doesn’t do it for you, then try this quick video. There are places in Alaska where they only get minutes or an hour of sunlight some parts of the year. And start garden dreaming: sign up for a community garden plot or CSA share!

 

 

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Save It For Later: Winter Veggie Storage

Don’t forget! The annual Garden City Harvest Fire Sale is quickly approaching – next Wednesday and Thursday, 10/19 & 10/20, from 2:00 to 6:30 PM, at the River Road Farm (1657 River Rd). What is the Fire Sale you ask? Sounds spicy… It’s your chance to stock up on storage quantities of cured onions, squash, garlic, tomatoes, peppers, and much more. It’s set up market style, so you can select your favorite summer tastes to last you the winter through. With pretty amazing prices, I might add.

Which brings us to another point: storing said veggies. As post-modern neo-pioneers, most of us in the community garden world don’t have the nostalgic root cellar to store our goods. Well worry not, one can wax poetic for winter veggie storage in a multitude, and quite innovative, of ways. Apartment and alley-house dwellers, this is your time to shine; let the creativity commence like it once did in the time pre-shipping containers and electric air-conditioning.

Winter squash keep well in a cool bedroom. Image by Keith Ward via Mother Earth News.
Winter squash keep well in a cool bedroom. Image by Keith Ward via Mother Earth News.

Things to consider –

Curing – Most storage crops need to be cured to enhance their storage potential. “During the curing process, potatoes and sweet potatoes heal over small wounds to the skin, garlic and onions form a dry seal over the openings at their necks, and dry beans and grain corn let go of excess moisture that could otherwise cause them to rot.” [1]  Harvesting, curing and storage requirements vary with each crop. Luckily, if you’re buying your veduras de fuego, ie, Fire Sale veggies, then the crops have already been cured and are ready for storage.

First thing’s first – you need a cool (but not freezing) location for storing your bounty over the winter. This has to do with slowing the release rate of xylene gases which accelerates ripening and thus, spoiling; 34F and 50F (1 to 10C) is best.[2]

Uproot leeks, cabbage and Brussels sprouts and place in damp sand. Image by Keith Ward via Mother Earth News.
Uproot leeks, cabbage and Brussels sprouts and place in damp sand (more on sand storage here). Image by Keith Ward via Mother Earth News.

Ventilation – Although you’re purposely slowing the release rate of xylene gases, your veggies will naturally still emit them. Keep your goods in a ventilated area to allow wafting of the gases – somewhere with natural openings and airflow. Closets which are regularly opened and mudrooms are good examples.

Humidity – Another thing to consider when choosing a place to store your winter goods is relative humidity. “Providing moisture lets crisp root vegetables sense they are still in the ground. Some staple storage crops, such as garlic, onions and shallots, need dry conditions to support prolonged dormancy…”  so be aware as to which vegetables you are grouping together and where you’re putting them.[3]  Barbara Pleasant’s article (below) has a thorough chart on which veggies need what for optimum storage.

A spare dresser in a cool room can provide convenient storage space. Image by Keith Ward via Mother Earth News.
A spare dresser in a cool room can provide convenient storage space. Image by Keith Ward via Mother Earth News.

Lastly, be creative (like this trash can root cellar idea)! Don’t think that because you live in a small space, don’t have a garage, basement, or extra freezer, you can’t store fruits and vegetables through the winter. Read garden writer Barbara Pleasant’s article (with such lovely illustrations) for brilliant vegetable storage ideas.


[1] Pleasant, Barbara. “Food Storage: 20 Crops That Keep and How to Store Them.” Mother Earth News. Last modified September 2012. Accessed October 10, 2016. http://www.motherearthnews.com/organic-gardening/garden-planning/food-storage-zm0z12aszcom.

[2] Bourque, Danny. “Root Cellars and Me (Tips for Cold Storage).” Simple Bites. Last modified October 12, 2012. Accessed October 10, 2016. http://www.simplebites.net/root-cellars-and-me-tips-for-cold-storage/.

[3] Pleasant, Barbara.

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Nurturing for Next Season – With a Winter Intermission, It’s All Cyclical

Well folks, as I sit here writing this, it’s a balmy mid-50s outside with a forecasted rise to 79 by this afternoon. We’re in the throes of transitional temperatures. In three days it’ll be October and all of a sudden, it’s fall. In an effort to avoid the usual autumnal rhetoric of reflection and nostalgia, I’ll keep my melancholy to a minimum. However I will say this; I’ve learned and experienced many new things during my first year as a community gardens coordinator, but witnessing the seasonal change through the lens of our ten community gardens has been the most radical of experiences. Missoula’s short growing season lends itself to vicious seasonal transformations, and with the quickly dying leaves and decrease in production comes a marked shift in energy.

Although it seems like our plants are asking to be excused from the dinner table, and if you’re anything like me, you’re also falling victim to the sleepiness in the air, fall does bring an element of new life. One aspect of this is soil. 2298564117_b9ba35d18c_o

Nurturing for Next Season

Like candy for your garden.
Like candy for your garden.

As you begin clearing your garden of tired plants, be sure to turn them back into the soil – despite a slowdown in harvestable goods, they still have much to offer. Fall is ideal for building soil health; it’s now that we’re surrounded with decomposing leaves, veggies, plants, and matter – you can smell it in the air!  Adding this naturally occurring organic material reintroduces nutrients to your soil, plus it’s cheaper than buying compost, and easier than hauling it to the compost bin or EKO. Be sure to chop up large matter before turning it in, as that will aid in decomposition. Read specific directions and tips, the benefits of fall soil propagation, as well as the science behind organic matter and soil health, here.

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Closing Day & Cold Temp Prep

With all this said, Closing Day is officially just around the corner: Saturday, October 22nd. Closing Day isn’t entirely what it sounds, it’s simply a deadline for you to prepare your plot for winter, and to have it clean and tidy. You’re welcome to continue gardening through the winter, so long as you’ve taken the steps to winterize. It is also a time for us to assess whether you’ve properly put your plot to sleep, and thus whether you will be receiving your $15 deposit. Follow these guidelines to ensure you properly prep your plot and receive your deposit. Every garden has Closing Day Guidelines posted, so be sure to check your garden’s blackboard/shed.  If you have any questions at all, please reach out to your Leadership Committee or Garden City Harvest Staff! We’re all here to help.

As we all know, and as I slipped into above, fall begs for reflection … which can be so useful for all of us. Please take a few minutes to complete our Year-End Community Garden Survey. This helps us prep for next season, helps us grow as coordinators, and mostly, it helps us nurture this program. Thank you all!

“Autumn is a second spring, when every leaf is a flower” – Albert Camus

Earlier this week Patrick and Northside Leader Brian, delivered straw to all the gardens. Use straw to help prep your plot for the cold temps ahead.
Earlier this week Patrick and Northside Leader Brian delivered straw to all the gardens. Use straw to help your plot retain moisture over the winter.